المساعد الشخصي الرقمي

مشاهدة النسخة كاملة : a'alam Al Ummah



فراس يوسف حسن
24-02-2008, 07:56
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته, وبعد
أحببت أن أخصص هذا الرابط لأضع فيه تراجم لعلماء أهل السنة رحمهم الله ورضي عنهم باللغة الإنجليزية علّها تكون بذرة طيبة لافتتاح منتدىً بهذه اللغة في هذا المنتدى المبارك نصرة لدين الله ونشراً لمذهب أهل الحق أهل السنة الأشاعرة والماتريدية.

و سأبدأ بترجمة الإمام الرازي رضي الله عنه ورحمه:

al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din ah 544-606
Muhammad ibn `Umar ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn Abu `Abd Allah al-Qurashi, al-Bakri, al-Taymi, al-Tabaristani al-Shafi`i, known as Ibn al-Khatib and as Fakhr al-Din al-Razi Shaykh al-Islam, the imam of the learned scholars of kalam and the foundations of belief, a major jurist of the Shafi`i school, specialist of usul, Sufi, commentator of the Qur'an philologist, genealogist, heresiographer, logician, and physician. "An imam who overwhelmed the heavens that glitter, nay, heavens glamour not if he shows his pearls
"An ocean that contains more pearls than the ocean." "A garden of Knowledge overcomes all gardens with its scents and odors." " The Mekka of all his fellow scholars who looked at him and saw the blessings of Allah". The principal spokesman of Ahl al Sunna in his time , he refuted all the sects with which he came into contact, particularly Mu`tazila, Shi`a, Hashwiyya or Karramiyyah (an activist ascetic sect, staunch defenders of a literal interpretation of scripture and of anthropomorphism- He gave them a bitter drink contaminated their guts ), Isma'ilis, Hashwi Hanbalites, Rhafidah (rejectionists), Suleimanyah, as well as the Jews and Christians. At early age, he was taught by his father Khatib al-Rayy Diya' al-Din `Umar and Majd al-Din al-Jili al-Maraghi basically, then afterwards Abu Muhammad al-Baghawi and Kamal al-Din al-Simnani. Al-Razi's skill in polemic, refutation preaching and debate was tremendously perfect in both Arabic and Persian languages. He often break into emotional states while preaching, moving to tears whoever listened to him. In his late twenties, he visited Khwarazm and Transoxania, where he came in contact with some of the last theologians in the Mu'tazilite tradition. Although he endured hardship and poverty at the beginning of his career, on returning to Rayy from Transoxania he entered into the first of a series of patronage relations with rulers in the east which contributed to his reputedly considerable wealth and authority. Returning to his native Rayy, he authored a series of works which achieved widespread fame in a short time. Among them

Al-Tafsir al-Kabir, also known as Mafatih al-Ghayb- one of the greatest commentaries of the Holy Qura'n
Isma al-Anbiya
Bahr al-Ansab
Kitab al-Mantiq al-Kabir
Al-Mahsul wa al-Muntakhab
Al-Arba`in
Nihayat al-`Uqul
Al-Bayan wa al-Burhan fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Tughyan
Al-Mabahith al-`Imadiyya fi al-Matalib al-Ma`adiyya
Al-Mabahith al-Mashriqiyya
Asas al-Taqdis, a relentlessness refutation of the anthropomorphists.
Irshad al-Nuzzar ila Lata'if al-Asrar
Al-Zubda
Al-Ma`alim fi Usul al-Din
Al-Ma`alim fi Usul al-Fiqh
Sharh Asma' Allah al-Husna
Sharh Nisf al-Wajiz li al-Ghazzali

Al-Razi settled finally in Herat, where he had a teaching madrasa built for him, and where he died in ah 606- May Allah be pleased with him and bless his soul

Imam al-Razi said in his "Testament"- wasiyya
I have explored the ways of kalam and the methods of philosophy, and I did not see in them a benefit that compares with the benefit I found in the Qur'an. For the latter hurries us to acknowledge that greatness and majesty belong only to Allah, precluding us from involvement into the explication of objections and contentions. This is for no other reason than because human minds find themselves deadened in those deep, vexing exercises and obscure ways [of kalam and philosophy
Therefore, I say that everything that stands established by literal proofs concerning the necessity of Allah's existence, His oneness, His exemption from any and all partners, as well as His beginninglessness and pre-existence, His disposal of all things, His exclusive efficacy: that is what I also believe, and what I hope to meet Allah with
As for what is ultimately subtle and unclear, as well as all that is mentioned in the Qur'an and the sound books of hadith that specifically bears one meaning: it is all exactly as the text says. Whatever is otherwise, I say: O God of the worlds, I see that all of creation concur that You are the most generous of all generous ones, and the most merciful of them; therefore, concerning anything I wrote or thought, I bear witness that if You saw that I tried to declare true something false, or declare false something true, then do with me as I deserve; but if you saw that I only tried to declare transcendent whatever I considered truly transcendent, and believed so truthfully, then let Your mercy be commensurate with my intention, not with my outcome
As for the books which I authored and in which I listed and explicated countless questions, let whoever looks into them remember me kindly and pray for me out of compassion and benevolence, or else, strike out any wrong words. For I did not intend other than abundant investigation and the sharpening of thought, all the while relying upon Allah


Ibn al-Subki ( may Allah bless his soul) quoted the following lines of poetry from Imam al-Razi
The daring of minds ends in shackles
Most of mankind's undertakings are folly
Our souls are indifferent to what our bodies do
And the sum of our lives is affliction and harm
We did not benefit from our lifelong search
Except in collecting what these said, and those
Atop many a mountain men have triumphed
And gone, while the mountains remained
How many men and states have we seen
Goaded to disappear one and all

فراس يوسف حسن
24-02-2008, 11:29
al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid ah 450- 570

Abu Hamid Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi'i al-Ghazali, the Imam of all Imams of Islam, the crown of the sun of Islam, more majestic than kings and princes, the ocean where pearls are gathered, the port where arches land, was born in ah 450 in in Tus Khorasan, Iran. His father died while he was still very young but he had the opportunity of getting education in the prevalent curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad. Soon he acquired a high standard of scholarship in religion and philosophy and was honored by his appointment as a Professor at the Nizamiyah University of Baghdad, which was recognized as one of the most reputed institutions of learning in the golden era of Muslim history. He learned various branches of the traditional Islamic religious sciences in his home town of Tus. He was also involved in Sufi practices from an early age. Being recognized by Nizam al-Mulk, the vizier of the Seljuq sultans, he was appointed head of the Nizamiyyah College at Baghdad in ah 484. As the intellectual head of the Islamic community, he was busy lecturing on Islamic jurisprudence at the College, and also refuting heresies and responding to questions from all segments of the community. Four years later, however, al-Ghazali fell into a serious spiritual crisis and finally left Baghdad, renouncing his career and the world. After wandering in Syria and Palestine for about two years and finishing the pilgrimage to Mecca, he returned to Tus, where he was engaged in writing, Sufi practices and teaching his disciples until his death. In the meantime he resumed teaching for a few years at the Nizamiyyah College in Nishapur.
Al-Ghazali explained in his autobiography why he renounced his brilliant career and turned to Sufism. It was, he says, due to his realization that there was no way to certain knowledge or the conviction of revelatory truth except through Sufism. This realization is possibly related to, his refutation of philosophy. He mastered philosophy and then criticized it in order to Islamicize it. The importance of his criticism lies in his philosophical demonstration that the philosophers' metaphysical arguments cannot stand the test of reason. Imam Al Ghazali's major contribution lies in religion, philosophy and Sufism. A number of Muslim philosophers had been following and developing several viewpoints of Greek philosophy, including the Neoplatonic philosophy, and this was leading to conflict with several Islamic teachings. On the other hand, the movement of sufism was assuming such excessive proportions as to avoid observance of obligatory prayers and duties of Islam. Based on his unquestionable scholarship and personal mystical experience,Al Ghazali sought to rectify these trends, both in philosophy and sufism. Imam Al Ghazali, however, attacked severely and refuted the pillars of the philosophers and settled on their graves. In religion, particularly mysticism, he cleansed the approach of sufism of its excesses and reestablished the authority of the foundations (Usu'l) of religion. Yet, he stressed the importance of genuine sufism, which he maintained was the path to attain the absolute truth.
He wrote many books on various fields, among them are:
Maqasid al-falasifa (The Intentions of the Philosophers)
Tahafut al-falasifa (The Incoherence of the Philosophers)
Mi'yar al-'ilm (The Standard Measure of Knowledge)
Mihakk al-nazar fi'l-mantiq (The Touchstone of Proof in Logic)
al-Iqtisad fi'l-i'tiqad (The Middle Path in Theology)
Mizan al-'amal (The Balance of Action)
al-Qistas al-mustaqim (The Just Balance)
Ihya' 'ulum al-din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences)
al-Risala al-Qudsiyya (The Jerusalem Epistle)
Mishkat al-anwar (The Niche of the Lights)
al-Mustasfa min 'ilm al-usul (The Essentials of the Islamic Legal Theory)
al-Munqidh min al-dalal (The Deliverer from Error).
Imam Al Ghazali died in ah570 in Baghdad, May Allah bless his soul and be pleased with him, amen

عمار عبد الله
24-02-2008, 15:11
جزاك الله خيرا

فراس يوسف حسن
25-02-2008, 09:26
Imam Abu'l-Hasan al-Ash'ari


Ali ibn Ismail ibn Abi Bishr Ishaq ibn Salim, ibn Ismail ibn Abdullah Ibn Musa Ibn Bilal Ibn Abi Burdatah Amer son of the Companion Abu Musa al-Ash'ari ( May Allah be pleased with him) Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari al-Yamani al-Basri al-Baghdadi Imam Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah, Imam al-mutakalima, the defender of religion and Sunnah, the ocean where others stand like drops of water, the sun where others derive light from, all scholars and all jurisprudents from every path followed him in his pursuit towards purifying religion from the misconceptions of Mu'tazila, Karramya, Rafidah and others, was born in Basra in ah 260 or 270. Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari was at the beginning of his scholarly career a pupil of Abu 'Ali al-Jubbai, head of the Basran Mu'tazila School. A few years before al-Jubbai's death, Imam al-Asha'ri announced that he repented of having been a Mu'tazilite and pledged himself to oppose the Mu'tazila. Imam al-Ash'ari is alleged to have asked him about the likely fate of three brothers: a believer, an unbeliever and one who died as a child. Al-Jubba'i answered that the first would be rewarded, the second punished and the third neither rewarded nor punished. To the objection that Allah should have allowed the third to live so that he might have gained paradise, al-Jubba'i replied that Allah knew that had the child lived he would have become an unbeliever. Al-Ash'ari then silenced him by asking why in that case Allah did not make the second brother die as a child in order to save him from hellfire! After his conversion, Imam Abu al-hasan al-Ash'ari continued to use the dialectic method in theology but insisted that reason must be subservient to revelation. He left Basra and came to Baghdad, and took fiqh from the Shafi'i jurist Abu Ishaq al-Marwazi. He devoted the next twenty-four years to the refutation of "the Mu'tazila, the Rafida, the Jahmiyya, the Khawarij, and the rest of the various kinds of innovators. Imam al-Asha'ri died in ah333 in Baghdad, may Allah bless his soul and be pleased with him.
Among the books written by Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Asha'ri is the following:
Al-Fusul ("The Sub-Headings")

Idah al-Burhan fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Tughyan "The Clarification of the Proof in the Refutation of Heretics"
Al-Idrak "The Awareness"
Al-Istita`a "Potency"
Al-Jawabat fi al-Sifat `an Masa’il Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Shubuhat ("The Replies Pertaining to the Attributes On the Questions and Sophistries of Heretics"

Al-Jawhar fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Munkar ("The Essence: Refutation of the People of Heresy and Transgression").
Al-Jism ("The Body

Jumal al-Maqalat ("The Sum of Sayings

Khalq al-A`mal ("The Creation of Deeds

Al-Luma` fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Zaygh wa al-Bida` ("The Sparks: A Refutation of Heretics and Innovators
Al-Luma` al-Kabir ("The Major Book of Sparks

Al-Luma` al-Saghir ("The Minor Book of Sparks

Maqalat al-Falasifa ("The Sayings of Philosophers
Maqalat al-Islamiyyin wa Ikhtilfa al-Musallin ("The Discourses of the Proponents of Islam and the Differences Among the Worshippers

Al-Masa’il `ala Ahl al-Tathniya ("The Questions in Refutation of the Dualists
al-Mujaz ("The Concise

Al-Mukhtasar fi al-Tawhid wa al-Qadar

Al-Mukhtazan ("The Safekeeping

Al-Muntakhal ("The Sifted

Naqd al-Balkhi fi Usul al-Mu`tazila ("Critique of al-Balkhi and the Principles of the Mu`tazila

Al-Nawadir fi Daqa’iq al-Kalam ("The Rarities Concerning the Minutiae of Dialectic Theology

Al-Qami` li Kitab al-Khalidi fi al-Irada ("The Subduer: A Refutation of al-Khalidi’s Book on the Will

Al-Radd `ala Ibn al-Rawandi ("Refutation of Ibn al-Rawandi

Al-Radd `ala Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Wahhab al-Jubba’i, an extensive refutation of a Mu`tazili scholar and of his book al-Usul ("The Principles

Al-Radd `ala al-Mujassima ("Refutation of the Anthropomorphists
A refutation of `Abbad ibn Sulayman in the minutiae of kalâm.
A refutation of a book by `Ali ibn `Isa.
A refutation of al-Iskafi’s book entitled al-Latif ("The Subtle").
Al-Ru’ya ("The Vision

Al-Sharh wa al-Tafsil fi al-Radd `ala Ahl al-Ifk wa al-Tadlil ("The Detailed Explanation in Refutation of the People of Perdition

Al-Sifat ("The Attributes

Tafsir al-Qur’an wa al-Radd `ala man Khalafa al-Bayan min Ahl al-Ifki wa al-Buhtan ("A Commentary on the Qur’an and Refutation of Those Who Contradicted it Among the People of Perdition and Calumny

Af`al al-Nabi Sallallahu `Alayhi wa Sallam ("The Acts of the Prophet – Allah bless and greet him").
Al-Akhbar ("The Reports

Bayan Madhhab al-Nasara ("Exposition of the Doctrine of Christians

Hikayat Madhahib al-Mujassima ("The Tales of the Schools of the Anthropomorphists

Al-Ihtijaj ("The Adducing of the Proofs

Al-Imama ("The Doctrine of the Imam

Ithbat al-Qiyas ("The Upholding of the Principle of Analogy

فراس يوسف حسن
25-02-2008, 11:29
al-Juwayni, Abu'l Ma'ali



Abul Ma'ali Abdul Malik ibn Abdullah ibn Yusuf Ibn Muhammad al-Juwayni an-Naisaburi, head of Shafi'i school, the renowned scholar, Usuli and prominent Imam, legal inheritant of the thought of Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Asha'ri, master of Kalam, Sufism, Imam al-Haramayn, the imam of the two great mosques of Mecca and Medina, the staunch defender of Sunna, was born in ah 419 of Arab lineages going back to the tribe of Tai.
He was taught by such eminent masters in Naisabur and Marw as his own father, Abu Muhammad al-Juwayni, Abul-Qasim Al-Isfara'yni, among many others. Al-Juwayni was known for his intelligence, eloquence, learning and charisma. He began teaching in Naisabur immediately after his father's death. At the age of twenty, he taught for four years in the two Sacred-Masajid of Makkah and Madinah.
Abul Ma'ali returned to his hometown, Juwayn, in Naisabur and taught for about thirty years in the Nithamiyyah School, the biggest at Naisabur in Northern Persia. He had a powerful influence on people, and he always delivered heart rendering, enlightening sermons in which he and attendees used to weep. He enriched the Islamic culture and research with the numerous valuable volumes, which he authored and compiled. Due to the nobility of his character and comprehensive knowledge, his students exceeded 400, including such brilliant names as al-Ghazali, al-Farawi, as-Suhami and al-Masjidi.
He was a leading scholar in Ilm al-kalam or philosophy-a framework for establishing Aqueedah that was developed after the first three generations of Muslims. But his real expertise was in Usulul (principles) of Fiqh. He wrote many books some of which still have no comparable today like:
Ghayyath al-Umam (a Political treatise

al-Burhan fi usul al-fiqh (The Proofs of Jurisprudence),

Nihayatul Matlab fi Dirayatul Math-hab (Shafi'i School

Kitab al-irshad ila qawati 'al-adilla fi usul al-i'tiqad (The Guide to the Cogent Proofs of the Principles of Faith

Matnul Waraqat fi Usul al-Fiqh

Al-Aqeedah al-Nithamiyyah

and may others.
Imam Abul Ma'ali al-Juwayni died in ah478 in Naisabur, May Allah bless his soul and be pleased with him.

فراس يوسف حسن
26-02-2008, 09:46
Imam Al-`Izz ibn 'Abdus-Salam ah577-660

Abu Muhammad Izz Iddeen Ibn Abdulaziz Ibn Abdus-Salam Ibn Abi-lqasim Ibn Al Hasn Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhaddhab Assulmi al Magribi ashafi'I al Asha'ri, Sultan of the `Ulama' ( scholars)seller of kings and princes, known as Al-`Izz ibn 'Abdus-Salam, Sheik Al Islam, Sheikh of Shafi'i Sheikhs, the Imam of his era by consent, master of Fiqh (jurisprudence), Arabic language and Usul, supreme judge and Khateeb (preacher), was born in Damascus in the year ah 577 or 578. to a poor and religious family. As a young man he used to live in a place next to the Damascus Mosque. He once said " I had a dream, hearing a whisper says:" Oh Ibn Abdus-Salam, do you wish knowledge or worship, I said knowledge for it leads to worship". That dream was interpreted by his Sheikh al Fakr Ibn Asakir as a call from heavens ordering him to devote himself to learning the religious siences.
He used to say" I never needed to finish my study with a teacher. For as soon as I got to the middle my teacher would say to me, 'You have digested the subject. You have no need for me, and you can depend on yourself to finish it.' But I would not leave my teachers until I completed studying the specified course of study in that field." His thirst for learning made him leave to Baghdad at the age of twenty, to learn from its scholars.
But even at the age of sixty, when he had already become an Imam in his own right, he would not hesitate in attending sessions conducted by some Egyptian scholars in Cairo.
He taught at Damascus schools and in Cairo as well, where in the latter he spent the last twenty years of his life in teaching and writing.
Upon his appointment as Supreme Judge in Egypt, he noticed that the Memluke princes (who were originally purchased by Sultan Najmuddin Ayyoub with money from the public treasury) acted like free men in transactions not permitted by the law for men of their status as bondsmen. Al-'Izz would not validate those transactions. When they talked to him, he pointed out that they should be sold and that their price be returned to the Public Treasury, then they could be officially freed. It was only then that their transactions would be valid. Since then he was known as the "Seller of Kings and Princes".
He authored many books, among them:
Al Tafseer
Ikhtisar al Nihaya
al Quwa'd al Khubrah wa Sugrah
Kitabu as Salat
al Fatawah al Muselyia


Imam al Izz ibn 'Abdus-Salam died in ah660 in Cairo, may Allah be well pleased with him and bless his soul, amen.

فراس يوسف حسن
27-02-2008, 09:02
Abu Bakr ibn al-Baqillani ah328-403


Muhammad ibn al-Tayyib ibn Muhammad ibn Ja'far ibn Qasim, al-Qadi Abu Bakr ibn al-Baqillani al-Basri al-Baghdadi al-Maliki al-Ash'ari, Sheikh al Islam, Sheikh al Mutakallimin, Sheikh Ulama' al Ummah, the master of theology, jurisprudent, language, foremost of the Scholars of Usul and many other sections of knowledge, author of many priceless books, the core of unique intelligence, the sword of Islam, and the tongue of all Ummah, the defender who protected the fences of the religion against all other sects like Rafidah, Mu'tazila, Jahmyah, Khawarje and others, a mutakallim who spoke the language of the hadîth Scholars, adhering to the doctrine of Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (may Allah be pleased with him), and the leader of Maliki Doctrine in his time was born in ah328 in Basra.

He learned al-Ash'ari's Usul, while he admired his way in defeating other sects. So, he used the Imam's method in refuting every sect in his time among them, Karramiyya, Mushabbiha, and Hashwiyya, Rafidah, Mu'tazila, Khawarij, Jahmiyya, Jews and Christians. He learned al-Ash'ari's Usul from Abu Abdullah Muhammed Ibn Ahmad Ibn Mujahid Attaa'I the companion of Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (may Allah be pleased with him). And he learned the Maliki Law from the Sheikh of Maliki scholars Imam Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Salih Attameemi al-Abhari al Maliki al-Baghdadi.

Among the books he had authored are:


al-Milal wal-Nihal

al-Ta'deel wal-Tajreeh

al-Tabyeen fi adab al-Jidal

al-Intisar

I'jaz al-Qur'an
.
Hidayatul-Mustarshidin

And many more.

When he died, the Sheikh of the Hanbalites , Abu al-Fadl al-Tamimi, came to his funeral with others of his school and ordered a herald to open the procession shouting: "This is the Aider of the Sunna and the Religion! This is the Imam of all Muslims! This is the defender of the Shari'a! He was buried near the grave of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, in ah403, May Allah be pleased with him and bless his soul.

هلال بن عبد الله بن عمر
27-02-2008, 23:16
Merci Pour Se Travail Et Votre Efort

Contunier Comme Ca Svp

فراس يوسف حسن
28-02-2008, 05:26
Mercie pour votre commentaire;)